Database Management Basics

17 5月 Database Management Basics

Database management is a system for managing information that supports the business operations of an organization. It includes data storage and distribution to users and applications making changes as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting corrupted due to unexpected failures. It is a part of a company’s overall informational infrastructure that supports decision-making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts data for a broad range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complicated human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a collection of tables that organizes data according to a certain scheme, like one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, called attributes, that contain information about the data entities. The most widely used type of database today is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also easier to update data since it doesn’t require the modification of several databases.

Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability, and other operational concerns including the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of different external views based on different data models. It may include virtual table that are computed with generic data to enhance the performance.